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A level Biology
Revision Guides
If you move on from this page to the Biotopics units, you are expected to abide by these terms of reference.

Interactive 3-D molecules have a separate menu page
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GCSE Biology
Revision guides

Introductory Topics

Cells & cell transport
Animal cells
Plant cells
Bacterial cells
Yeast cells
Cellular processes
Cell structure and specialisation
How substances get into and out of cells (osmosis)
Osmosis in operation in animal and plant cells
Pupils' expts: osmosis in carrot discs
Using the microscope
Cell division and chromosomes
Keeping healthy
Healthy diet calculator
Semmelweis
Hospital hygiene & HCAI
Antibiotics
Bacterial Diseases
Types of Antibiotics
Viral diseases
Environment
Feeding relationships 
Competition
Food chains and webs
Examples of food chains
Measuring population sizes
Ecological pyramids
Conversion of biomass and energy
Alien Invasions
Predator prey interdependence
Natural Selection
Asexual/sexual
The two methods of reproduction
Follow-on information from above:
strawberries
potatoes
bananas
onions
apples
bacterial reproduction
Genetic developments
Genetic fingerprinting
Genes, DNA and Chromosomes
Human genome project
Gene therapy
Cloning for body part transplants
Rabbit genetics
Pedigrees
Electrical and Chemical Signals
Nervous co-ordination
Passage of nervous impulses
Voluntary and reflex actions
How the eye works
The iris reflex
Hormonal control of the menstrual cycle
Use, Misuse and Abuse
Opiates and cannabinoids*
Paracetamol
Microbes and disease
Methods of microbial transmission
The body's defence systems against microbial diseases
Tuberculosis
TB prevention and control
The distribution of TB
Biotechnology
Pharmaceutical molecules in 3-D
Development of aspirin*
Taxol*
Anti-malarials*
Functional foods
Microbial products
Behaviour
Feeding behaviour
Domestication of animals by Man
* - from Jsmol 3-D molecules section
62

Classical GCSE Topics

HUMANS as ORGANISMS
Nutrition
(ANIMAL &) HUMAN NUTRITION
Vitamins and minerals
FOOD TESTS
DIET ANALYSIS and FOOD ADDITIVES
DIGESTION & ASSOCIATED PROCESSES
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
TEETH
Enzymes
How enzymes work
Enzyme types and rate of reaction
ACTION OF AMYLASE ON STARCH
CONDITIONS FOR ENZYME ACTION
ACTION OF PEPSIN (+ ACID) ON PROTEIN (EGG WHITE)
ACTION OF LIPASE (+ BILE SALTS) ON FATS (MILK)
STARCH AGAR EXPERIMENTS
Respiration
THE RESPIRATION PROCESS
THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Experiments to compare carbon dioxide content of inhaled and exhaled air
DANGERS OF SMOKING
- Aerobic respiration
- Effects of exercise on the body
Blood
BLOOD
THE HEART AND CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
HEART PROBLEMS AND FITNESS
Homeostasis
HOMEOSTASIS, EXCRETION AND THE KIDNEYS
PROBLEMS WITH THE KIDNEYS
SKIN AND TEMPERATURE CONTROL
Senses
SENSES, SENSITIVITY, STIMULI AND SKIN
THE EYE AND VISION
THE EAR
THE BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM
RESPONSE AND CO-ORDINATION & DRUGS
Hormones
HORMONES AND THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Reproduction
THE HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Birth control
PREGNANCY AND BIRTH
Skeleton
The Skeleton and Movement
Construction of a model arm
GREEN PLANTS as ORGANISMS
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
THE STRUCTURE OF THE LEAF
Experiment to show factors required for photosynthesis: (1) - (chlorophyll)
Experiment to show factors required for photosynthesis: (2) - (carbon dioxide and light)
TRANSPORT & SUPPORT IN PLANTS
PLANT MINERAL NUTRITION
PLANT HORMONES

VARIATION, INHERITANCE AND EVOLUTION

VARIATION, HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT
GENETICS
GENETIC INHERITANCE DIAGRAMS
GENETIC PEDIGREES
DNA STRUCTURE, REPLICATION and NUCLEAR DIVISION
DNA and PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
CLONES and CLONING
EVOLUTION and NATURAL SELECTION

LIVING ORGANISMS IN THEIR ENVIRONMENT

CYCLES IN THE ECOSYSTEM
WATER
ECOSYSTEMS
HUMANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
56

Further Topics

Microbiology
Microbiological specialisation
VIRUSES
BACTERIA
FUNGI
BASIC MICROBIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES
STREAKING
DILUTION PLATING
Applied Microbiology
A CLOSER LOOK AT DISEASE
MALARIA
SEWAGE TREATMENT
PRODUCTION OF ANTIBIOTICS
Teixobactin - background information
ANTIBODIES, ANTIGENS, MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES
FERMENTATION USING OTHER MICRO-ORGANISMS
Extension topics
MANIPULATING GENES
MANIPULATING REPRODUCTION
Variety of life
Plant groups
Simple organisms
Invertebrate groups
Insects
Cold blooded vertebrates
Warm blooded vertebrates
Classification
Making your own key
The bluebell
The fox
The earthworm
The snail
Various experiments
The effect of temperature on activity of yeast
Direct observation of yeast population growth by counting the number of yeast cells
To monitor the progress of fermentation of different sugars by yeast
Experiment to show the effects of temperature on fermentation by yeast
Experiment to show some methods of preserving food
Experiment on heat loss in penguins or test-tubes
Experiment on the effect of light intensity on photosynthesis in Elodea
Other material
7 processes of life
Questions about skin
Flower structure
Filter feeding
Dietary guidelines
Food spoilage and additives
Asexual reproduction and artificial propagation
Same again - different filename
Same again - but no direct references to s.x
44

Higher level topics
- A and AS level

Basic biochemistry
Elements in Biochemistry
Glucose structure
Condensation and hydrolysis
Condensation and hydrolysis
Condensation of monosaccharides
Hydrolysis of a disaccharide
Amino acid structure
Condensation of amino acids
Hydrolysis of a dipeptide
Formation of a lipid by condensation
Hydrolysis of a lipid
Protein structure
Levels of protein structure
Insulin as an example of protein structure
Haemoglobin and Myoglobin as examples of protein structure
Practicals
Simple biochemical tests on carbohydrates
Chromatography of amino acids
Information about amino acids
Practical illustrating the effect of a competitive enzyme inhibitor
Unknown liquids practical
Effect of pH on the action of the enzyme catalase
Pathways
Glycolysis pathway
Glycolysis pathway (minimal detail)
Glycolysis pathway (more detail)
Regeneration of NAD
Krebs, citric acid or tricarboxylic acid cycle
The mitochondrial electron transport chain
Oxidative phosphorylation
Photosynthesis: light-dependent reactions
Light-independent reactions

Info
The kangaroo rat
Hardy Weinberg Equation
The digestive system

Biological chemicals
Monomers and polymers,
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Enzymes
pH
ATP
DNA replication
Water
Inorganic ions

Cells and cellularity
Eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic cells
Virus_particles
Endosymbiont theory
44

Molecular displays
- menu pages

Most recent:
Jsmol section - interactive molecules in 3D
Extended, improved, a bit slower but works with tablets:
Contents: carbohydrates, amino acids, dipeptide, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, antibiotics etc

No longer being developed:
JMol section - interactive molecules in 3D
These pages use a Java applet which may trigger a security alert from some browsers- but there is no specific risk here
Quite smooth rendition with some desktop computers, but not tablets.
Contents - as below but extended (carbohydrates, amino acids, dipeptide, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, but not antibiotics).

Rather limited:
CHIME section (20 topics)
Contents: carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids

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