The Vitamin B1 (thiamine) molecule in 3-D

The Vitamin B1 (thiamine) molecule - rotatable in 3 dimensions

Vitamin B1 (thiamine) is an essential vitamin in all animals. It was originally called aneurin - a reference to negative effects on the nervous system (caused by lack of this material).

In Man, thiamine deficiency causes beri-beri (symptoms include severe lethargy and fatigue, with complications affecting cardiovascular, nervous, muscular and gastrointestinal systems). Thiamine is found in yeast, cereal grains, beans, nuts, and meat, especially pork, but processed out of refined grain products.

Thiamine is often taken in as the chloride, and inside cells it is converted into the (pyro)phosphate (TPP) which acts as cofactor for the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex which carboxylates pyruvate, resulting in the formation of acetyl Coenzyme A that condenses with oxaloacetate to form citrate, the first component of the citric acid cycle. It is especially active in the nervous system, and is involved in biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

The name thiamine refers to the sulphur content as well as its amino group.

More molecular detail:
aminopyrimidine ring ... methylene bridge ... thiazole ring ... methyl and hydroxyethyl side chains

Label/ Unlabel atoms